Study of incidence of externally visible congenital anomalies in stillbirth human foetuses of Manipuri origin
AUTHORS : Momin D Ambath, Debbarma Pranab, Debbarma Tanusri, Singh Th Dineshor, Saha Nirmalya DOI No. : DOI Link. : Introduction: Birth defect, congenital malformation, and
congenital anomaly are synonymous term use to describe
structural, behavioral, functional, and metabolic disorders
present at birth. Causes of congenital anomalies are often
divided into genetic and environmental factor. For 50-60% of
congenital anomalies the etiology is unknown. In the present
study, we only look for visible gross anomalies thereby the
exact definition of congenital anomaly may not be fulfilled.
Materials and method: Study was conducted in the
Department of Anatomy, Regional Institute of Medical
Sciences, Imphal, for the period of 1 year, i.e., from 1st August
2011 to 1st August 2012. 120 numbers of stillbirth human
foetuses were collected from the department of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, RIMS, Imphal with a due permission from ethical
committee. The specimens were preserved in 10% formalin.
After 2 weeks specimens were observed carefully for any visible
anomalies. Results: Out of 120 foetuses; 15 foetuses, i.e., 12.5%
were found to have congenital anomalies. The commonest
anomaly is craniofacial anomaly (6.666%) in the form of
anencephaly and cleft lip and palate. Next to craniofacial
anomaly is vertebral arch defect in the form of spina bifida
(2.5%). Other anomalies are abdominal wall defect and limbs
defects, each contributing 1.666% of the total anomalies in
the present study. Conclusion: The incidence of congenital
anomalies in the present study is 12.5%. The commonest
anomaly encountered is in the form of craniofacial anomalies.
This high of incidence congenital anomalies encountered in
this study may be due to the fact that the study was conducted
only in stillbirth human foetuses.